- T L Hankins, Biography in
*Dictionary of Scientific Biography*(New York 1970-1990).

http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/William_Rowan_Hamilton.aspx - Biography in
*Encyclopaedia Britannica.*

http://www.britannica.com/biography/William-Rowan-Hamilton

**Books:**

- R P Graves,
*Life of Sir William Rowan Hamilton*(1975) (3 volumes). - T L Hankins,
*Sir William Rowan Hamilton*(Baltimore, 1980). - S O'Donnell,
*William Rowan Hamilton. Portrait of a Prodigy*(Dublin, 1983). - J J O'Connor and E F Robertson, William Rowan Hamilton,
1805-1865,
*Physicists of Ireland: Passion and Precision*, (Institute of Physics, 2002), 61-68.

**Articles:**

- P V Arunachalam, W R Hamilton and his quaternions,
*Math. Ed.***6**(4) (1990), 261-266. - H Bateman, Hamilton's work in dynamics and its influence on modern thought,
*Scripta Math.***10**(1944), 51-63. - A Conway, W Hamilton, his life, work, and influence, in
*Proc. Second Canadian Math. Congress, Vancouver, 1949*(Toronto, 1951), 32-41. - R Dimitric and B Goldsmith, Sir William Rowan Hamilton,
*The Mathematical Intelligencer***11**(2) (1989), 29-30. - J Hendry, The evolution of William Rowan Hamilton's view of algebra as the science of pure time,
*Stud. Hist. Philos. Sci.***15**(1) (1984), 63-81. - T Koetsier, Explanation in the historiography of mathematics: the case of Hamilton's quaternions,
*Stud. Hist. Philos. Sci.***26**(4) (1995), 593-616. - N G Krotkova, The generalized complex numbers of W R Hamilton and De Morgan (Russian), in
*History and methodology of the natural sciences*(Moscow, 1973), 127-130. - L M Laita, Influences on Boole's logic : the controversy between William Hamilton and Augustus De Morgan,
*Ann. of Sci.***36**(1) (1979), 45-65. - J Lambek If Hamilton had prevailed : quaternions in physics,
*Math. Intelligencer***17**(4) (1995), 7-15. - C C MacDuffee, Algebra's debt to Hamilton.
*Scripta Math.***10**(1944), 25-35. - A Macfarlane,
*Lectures on Ten British Mathematicians of the Nineteenth Century*(New York, 1916), 34-49.

http://www.gutenberg.net/etext06/tbmms10p.pdf - J Mathews, William Rowan Hamilton's paper of 1837 on the arithmetization of analysis,
*Arch. History Exact Sci.***19**(2) (1978/79), 177-200. - A J McConnell, Hamilton's work in applied mathematics,
*Bull. Inst. Math. Appl.***13**(9-10) (1977), 228-233. - N D McMillan, History of mathematics : J MacCullagh and W R Hamilton - the triumph of Irish mathematics 1827-1865,
*Irish Math. Soc. Newslett.***14**(1985), 50-61. - M Nakane, The role of the three-body problem in W R Hamilton's construction of the characteristic function for mechanics,
*Historia Sci.*(2)**1**(1) (1991), 27-38. - J G O'Hara, The prediction and discovery of conical refraction by William Rowan Hamilton and Humphrey Lloyd (1832-1833),
*Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. Sect. A***82**(2) (1982), 231-257. - J O'Neill, Formalism, Hamilton and complex numbers,
*Stud. Hist. Philos. Sci.***17**(3) (1986), 351-372. - T Ogawa, His final step to Hamilton's discovery of the characteristic function,
*J. College Arts Sci. Chiba Univ. B***23**(1990), 45-62. - P Ohrstrom, W R Hamilton's view of algebra as the science of pure time and his revision of this view,
*Historia Math.***12**(1) (1985), 45-55. - H T H Piaggio, The significance and development of Hamilton's quaternions,
*Nature***152**(1943), 553-555. - L S Polak, William Rowan Hamilton (on the 150th anniversary of his birth) (Russian),
*Trudy Inst. Istor. Estest. Tehn.***15**(1956), 206-276. - Several articles, in
*Proc. Royal Irish Acad.***50A**(1945), 69-121. - J L Synge, The life and early work of Sir William Rowan Hamilton,
*Scripta Math.***10**(1944), 13-24. - B L van der Waerden, Hamilton's discovery of quaternions,
*Math. Mag.***49**(5) (1976), 227-234. - E Whittaker, William Rowan Hamilton, in Morris Kline (ed.),
*Mathematics in the modern world*(1968), 49-52. - A T Winterbourne, Algebra and pure time : Hamilton's affinity with Kant,
*Historia Math.***9**(2) (1982), 195-200.

**June 1998**

[http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/References/Hamilton.html]