## Benjamin Høyer: Cartography

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## Conclusion

In the course of this project I have introduced in detail the concept behind perspective projections onto each class of surface. Analysis of projections has been shown in terms of orthogonal scale factors, to show area and shape properties.

Non-perspective have been introduced as a way to satisfy desired conditions on the final projection. These were defined and found in terms of orthogonal scale factors. Other non-perspective methods have been briefly introduced, notably the interrupted projection technique.

Diagrams and calculations

For the most part, diagrams and calculation have been produced and carried out from scratch by
me. Diagrams taken from other sources have been credited beneath them. Sections on calculation
not carried out by me are:

• Derivation of mapping equations for the oblique gnomonic projection (equations (3.10) to
(3.17)). This section has been taken from Map Projections by P Richardus and R K Adler
pages 58 and 59, referenced below.
• Derivation of mapping equations for the stereographic projection (equations (3.21) to (3.22).
This section has been taken from An Introduction to Map Projections by A D Merriman page
39, referenced below.

For those interested in learning more about any of the topics in this project, I recommend the
following books.

Historical Cartography

• The World Mapped, I J Curnow (Sifton Praed & Co, Ltd, 1930)
• History of Cartography, L Bagrow and R A Skelton (C A Watts & Co, Ltd, 1964)
• Art & Cartography, D Woodward (University of Chicago Press, 1987)

General Cartography
• Maps: Their Uses and Construction, G J Morrison (Edward Stanford, 1902)
• The Study of Map Projections, J A Steers (University of London Press, 1956)
• Map Projections, H S Roblin (Edward Arnold, 1969)

Mathematical Cartography Topics
• Map Projections, P Richardus and R K Adler (North-Holland, 1972)
• An Introduction to Map Projections, A D Merriman (George G Harrap & Co, Ltd, 1947)
• Elementary Trigonometry, C Hawkins (J M Dent & Co, 1907)
• Spherical Trigonometry, J D H Donnay (Interscience Publishers, Inc, 1945)

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B Høyer June 2009